The late 19th century witnessed the unfolding of a global drama, as European colonial powers, including the British Empire, the French Empire, and the German Empire, embarked on imperial quests that spanned continents. Their relentless expansion led to the fall of illustrious dynasties and monarchs. The Aztec Empire, led by Emperor Moctezuma II, fell to the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés. The Inca Empire, ruled by Emperor Atahualpa, succumbed to Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. The Qing Dynasty of China faced various challenges, including the Opium Wars with Britain. The Mughal Empire, which had ruled India for centuries, declined due to British colonial expansion. The Ottoman Empire, an ancient and expansive realm, faced territorial losses and internal strife.